Before I get to your question of whether the question ban system is fair and should be changed, let me first explain a bit of how getting out of a question ban works in the current system. The full information is in this help center article; (Note that moderators do not have more information or are able to lift question bans) I will highlight the points I think are important here.
First and foremost: if you are question banned and want this ban lifted, you should improve/edit your existing questions. Any other action will be a mark against you for the system, this includes deleting questions shortly after posting them (whether poorly received or not!).
Additionally, if you believe you are at risk of receiving a question ban (or have received a warning that you may receive a question ban), you should try to avoid deleting questions and be very careful with asking new questions. Whenever you want to ask another question or delete a question, take a moment and check whether you can improve one of your existing questions, instead.
It may happen that you ask a question that is bad and cannot be salvaged by editing. In that case, there is little you can do. (note that if the question is 'too easy' and you got the answer on your own, one option would be to answer your own question ) So, you should do whatever you can to avoid asking a truly bad question. Taking a good look at the question before posting and the various advice on asking good questions listed on this page can help here.
Now, to answer your actual question, 'a limited grace period to see if he/she can ask good questions' already exists in some form. Every 6 months after receiving a question ban, the user is allowed to ask one question, and if that question is positively received, the ban is lifted. (see also here, at the bottom) Note that this is sort of an edge-case, and I advise against actually waiting this period out, and suggest to instead focus on improving/editing your existing questions.
However, this does not mean that the user is 'off the hook': all negative points that lead to the user getting a question ban in the first place are still being taken into account, and if the user again posts poorly received questions, the system can again impose a question ban. Likely, this ban would be given earlier than with a user that has never had a question ban before.
I can see that this may seem unfair. Unfortunately, I don't think it is reasonable to let a user start with a clean slate after getting out of a question ban: in that case, it is possible to abuse the system by only posting one decent question and a lot of bad questions after that, and repeat this every 6 months. I think it is essential that the previously banned user needs to prove that they can ask good questions, by forcing them to do so consistently if they want to avoid a question ban.
You may also think the single question is too short a grace period or the 6 months is too long to be granted this opportunity. However, this opportunity is a leniency on behalf of the system, and should not be the main way to get out of a question ban, which is to improve/edit your existing questions. Now, this may not always be possible -- which is one reason this opportunity exists --, but these are the exceptions, and is therefore discouraged.
In case you're interested, there is some old discussion about how strict or permanent the question ban should be here, and another old discussion about whether users recover from a question ban in practice, and how.