I'll share my own personal views. You should expect that the views of folks here may vary from person to person, so don't take this as necessarily representing anyone else's opinions.
We wouldn't be able to handle all the world's homework problems
Our policies regarding problem dumps exist for a reason. If we allowed everyone in the world to just post their exercise problem and ask "I can't see how to solve it, how do I solve this?", we'd be inundated. Similarly, if we allowed everyone to post their exercise problem and their proposed solution and ask "is my solution correct?", we'd be inundated. We couldn't handle that kind of traffic, and if we got inundated by that traffic, I suspect it'd be have a dramatic effect on our community.
Your primary beef seems to be that you feel you're too busy with other classes to put in enough effort on your own to satisfy the standards of this community. I'm sorry to hear that. But our standards are what they are, for a reason.
Keep in mind: when you come here, you are asking for experts to volunteer their time to help you. One of the reasons why the site has standards is precisely so that the experts keep coming here. Be careful what you ask for. If the site eliminated its standards, it's all too easy to imagine this degenerating into Yahoo Answers or Quora, and you might find that the experts stop coming and you don't get useful answers at all. There are other sites like that where you can participate, if this community's model doesn't appeal to you.
In particular, if we accepted problem dumps ("here's my homework problem, how do I solve it?"), we'd be inundated with them, and it's not clear whether the core participants would want to be here under those conditions.
And we're not here to be a homework help site, or to build a repository of homework problems and their solutions. I don't see that as the primary mission this community has decided they want to take on -- at least, not as our primary reason for existence. We do want to help with concepts, understanding, and problems people face; and if you've put in enough effort to ask a well-crafted, focused, question about some specific aspect or concept you are unclear on, that's in scope as well.
Does that mean we always get the balance right? I don't know. Meta is always open for specific proposals about our policies. And if you keep participating and learning the norms that have built up over time, I imagine you might get a better sense for where these policies come from.
If you're not getting enough personalized assistance with your assignments, you might consider making more use of your teaching assistant or professor at your university. That's what they are paid for.
We want to help you, not solve your homework problems for you
Also, I think I see a common misconception in your post. I think you are equating "solving your homework problem for you" with "helping you", and when someone doesn't want to solve your homework problem for you, you decide that they are being unhelpful. I see this view a lot. Many students think that if someone who gives them a solution to their homework problem is helping them. But in my opinion, that's not helping you, even though it might feel like it at the time.
How do you learn to ride a bicycle? It's not by watching someone else ride one, that's for sure. The only way to ride a bicycle is by trying to ride it yourself. You have to struggle with it yourself. It's a frustrating, annoying struggle at first -- but that's the only way you can learn to be able to do it for yourself.
Homework is like that. Homework is like teaching yourself to ride the bicycle. No amount of watching someone else solve your exercise problem for you will substitute for struggling with it yourself.
Our policies are not that unusual
Our policies are not actually as unusual as you suggest. Yes, Math.SE tends to have very different standards. But you could also compare to CSTheory.SE (Theoretical Computer Science). There, they have taken an even stronger stance. Take a look at their help center. I'll quote a few excerpts:
Questions should be based on knowledge sharing, not on shirking
You should only post questions you're actually seriously thinking about. Users are expected to do their part and try to answer their question by themselves before posting them on cstheory and asking for help from others. Search to see if your question is already answered somewhere else (e.g. Wikipedia) before asking a question. Try to make your question interesting for others by providing some background knowledge. Remember, questions should be based on knowledge sharing, not on shirking. Shirking goes against the spirit of the site.
See also their tips for How to ask a good question?.
You might also enjoy reading Stack Overflow's guidelines, How much research effort is expected of Stack Overflow users?.
We're not the only game in town
One last suggestion. You mentioned that you like the Math.SE model better. I can understand and respect that. And that raises a natural question:
Why not ask over there, at Math.SE?
They accept many questions about theoretical computer science, and they have over 2000 questions tagged computer science. It might be an interesting experiment to give it a try and see if you find that community meets your needs better.
Don't get me wrong. I'm not trying to push you away from this site: I do hope you'll stay. I'm just saying that you could try both Math.CS and here, and compare them. If you did it systematically, say via a randomized experiment, that might even lead to data that you could point to. You can't post every question at both places, because cross-posting is forbidden, but you could do a randomized experiment where for the next 10 questions you ask, for each one flipping a coin about where to post. Who knows; maybe it will work out that the experience there is clearly better all around, and if folks here just saw how it worked out, they'd be persuaded by your arguments. My experience is that when you want to change a community, hard data can often be extremely influential in changing minds.